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六級講座聽力之講座的結構特點

2017-06-05 17:28[四六級聽力] 來源: 瀏覽: 次 評論:
英語講座/講話是演講者/講話者用英語傳授知識,發表見解等的特殊口語形式,具有自身的結構特點。六級考生如果對其結構缺乏一定的了解,聽講座/講話時可能會錯過重要信息,影響答題效果。

一段完整的英語講座/講話一般也由開頭,主體,結尾三部分組成,符合“總(概述)——分(詳論)——總(總結)”的整體布局,不過每部分內部的具體構成與一般聽力篇章還是有所區別。

英語講座/講話的開頭常包括開場寒暄,演講者/講話人介紹(姓名、身份、成就等),主題概述,講座/講話提綱等。例如:

Moderator: Hello Ladies and Gentleman, it gives me great pleasure to introduce our keynote speaker for today's session, Dr. Howard Miller. Dr. Miller, Professor of Sociology at Washington University, has written numerous articles and books on the issues facing older Americans in our graying society for the past 15 years.

Dr. Miller: Thank you for that introduction. Today, I'd like to preface my remarks with a story from my own life which I feel highlights the common concerns that bring us here together…(CET官方樣題一)

從上例我們可以看出,在講話正式開始前,主持人有一段寒暄,介紹了主講人的姓名“Dr. Howard Miller”,身份“Professor of Sociology at Washington University”,研究領域與成果“numerous articles and books on the issues facing older Americans in our graying society for the past 15 years”。主講人的信息可看作是講座的背景,主講人的研究領域通常與他所做的講座或講話有關。

由于聽力測試時長的限制,開場寒暄和演講者/講話人介紹常會在試題中省略。主題概述最為重要,往往是講座/講話必不可少的部分,而且分話題或分論點也常會涵蓋在主題概述之中。如果是系列講座,講座開篇通常還有對之前講座內容的回顧。例如:

I'd like to look at a vital aspect of e-commerce, and that is the nature of the product or service. There are certain products and services that are very suitable for selling online, and others that simply don't work. (CET 6官方樣題三)

從上面的例子可以看出,講演者開門見山點明主題“a vital aspect of e-commerce”,“the nature of the product or service”,并緊接著概述主題內容“There are certain products and services that are very suitable for selling online, and others that simply don’t work”,其中也提示了分話題分別關于“products”和“services”。

通過上面的分析不難發現,講座/講話一開頭就會概述主題內容,揭示整體結構。開頭部分的各個成分增刪有度、相互交織,都是為了達到一個目的——便于聽眾了解講座主旨,把握講座內容發展的邏輯脈絡。提出并概述主題其實就是向聽眾表明即將傳遞的信息。講座/講話的開頭在某種程度上類似于新聞報道的導語,都包含了最重要的信息。可以說,聽懂開頭對理解講座/講話能起到事半功倍的效果。

英語講座/講話的主體部分通常是對主題的細化,用例子、數據、專家言論等進行的詳細論述。在講座開頭提出并概述主題之后,演講者/講話人緊接著就會用大段篇幅闡述主題。為了便于聽眾理解與接受,演講者通常會將講座主題進一步細化為多個分話題或分論點,以更好地組織講座內容。演講者有時會在講座開頭以列提綱的方式將分話題集中提出,有時則會跳過這一部分直接進入講座主體,將一個分話題論述清楚后再提出另一個。對主題的論證是整個講座的重中之重,是最必不可少的部分。

而在論述分話題時,演講者/講話人會使用舉例子、列數據、作比較、引用權威專家觀點等多種方法。其中舉例法最為常用,例子能讓抽象的理論變具體,生澀的概念變生動。演講者能以物為例,也能舉事為例。例如:

I'd like to look at a vital aspect of e-commerce, and that is the nature of the product or service. There are certain products and services that are very suitable for selling online, and others that simply don't work.

Suitable products generally have a high value-to-weight ratio. Items such as CDs and DVDs are obvious examples. Books, although heavier and so more expensive to post, still have a high enough value-to-weight ratio, as the success of Amazon, which started off selling only books, shows. Laptop computers are another good product for selling online.

Digital products, such as software, films and music, can be sold in a purely virtual environment. The goods are paid for by online transactions, and then downloaded onto the buyer's computer. There are no postage or delivery costs, so prices can be kept low.

Many successful virtual companies provide digital services, such as financial transactions, in the case of Paypal, or means of communication, as Skype does. The key to success here is providing an easy-to-use, reliable service. Do this and you can easily become the market leader, as Skype has proved.

Products which are potentially embarrassing to buy also do well in the virtual environment. Some of the most profitable e-commerce companies are those selling sex-related products or services. For a similar reason, online gambling is highly popular.

Products which are usually considered unsuitable for selling online include those that have a taste or smell component. Food, especially fresh food, falls into this category, along with perfume. Clothes and other items that need to be tried on such as diamond rings and gold necklaces are generally not suited to virtual retailing, and, of course, items with a low value-to-weight ratio.

There are exceptions, though. Online grocery shopping has really taken off, with most major supermarkets offering the service. The inconvenience of not being able to see the food you are buying is outweighed by the time saved and convenience of having the goods delivered. Typical users of online supermarkets include the elderly, people who work long hours and those without their own transport.  (CET 6官方樣題三)

在上面的例子中,演講者先在開頭提出并概述主題“There are certain products and services that are very suitable for selling online, and others that simply don't work”。然后演講者將“certain”細化成幾個分點:“suitable products generally have a high value-to-weight ratio”;“digital products…can be sold in a purely virtual environment”;“many successful virtual companies provide digital services such as financial transactions…or means of communication”;“products which are potentially embarrassing to buy also do well in the virtual environment”。“products [with] a high value-to-weight ratio”、“digital products”、“digital services”和“products…potentially embarrassing to buy”作為四個分話題構成了講座的主體。

演講者在論述分話題時主要使用了舉例法。在說明“products [with] a high value-to-weight ratio”時,舉了“CDs and DVDs”、“Books”、“Laptop computers”, 而且還用“the success of Amazon”特別支撐“Books”;講解“digital products”以“software, films and music”為例;論述“digital services”則舉“Paypal”和“Skype”為例,“Skype”還被特別強調;又用“sex-related products or services”和“online gambling”為例說明“products…potentially embarrassing to buy”。

講座/講話的主體就是將演講主題分解成分話題或子論點,再逐條論述。這部分層次最復雜,內容也最豐富。論述過程中演講者往往會使用舉例、對比等多種方法,以使自己的立論更堅實,觀點更有說服力。如果說講座/講話的開頭部分偏重聽懂大意,那么主體部分的聽力則還要兼顧細節。

英語講座/講話的結尾常包括總結、展望或呼吁、補充、致謝、互動等。演講者在論述完主題后,常會總結全文,概括要點,重申主題,甚至會將主題升華到更高的層次。總結之后,演講者有時會結合主題展望未來,針對講座討論的問題提出對應的解決方案,給出自己的處理建議。受時間等客觀條件所限,講座對主題的探討不可能面面俱到,有些跟主題相關但不太重要的信息,演講者并不將其置于講座主體中詳細探討。但如果演講者認為聽眾對這些信息有必要了解一二,他可能會在結尾處稍加提及。

講座行將結束時演講者還會感謝聽眾的參與。因為講座結尾篇幅有限,上述成分常會彼此滲透,次序也可能有所變化。此外,在主講人結束自己的演講或講話后,通常還有一個聽眾提問的互動環節,問題一般跟講座主題有關。不過出于聽力時長的考慮,這個互動環節往往不會保留在錄音中。無論是總結式還是補充式,講座/講話結尾處的內容主要是為了讓聽眾更確切、更全面地理解講座主題。演講者在講話結束前將發散開的思路聚攏,讓分解的話題或論點再度融合,又一次向聽眾展現講座全貌。通過再次突出主題,確保聽眾能把握講座的重點。在理解前文(講座/講話開頭,主體)的基礎上聽懂講座/講話結尾,對正確理解講座主旨大意至關重要。

開頭,主體,結尾三大部分構成了英語講座/講話的整體結構,幫助演講者達成自己的交際目的。演講者首先提出講座主題,提示講座結構,接著圍繞主題進行講解論述,最后對講授內容做出總結與評價。講座/講話中有些成分必不可少,有些則可有可無,各成分也未必按線性依次排列,可能相互交織、滲透,形成網狀結構,各成分的排列順序也根據具體情況有所變化。

但無論如何,演講者的目的是不變的——讓聽眾更深刻、全面地掌握講座內容。值得一提的是,由于六級講座/講話聽力時間和篇幅的限制,通常出現在考題中的聽力材料僅僅是一段完整講座/講話的片段。可能是講座/講話的開頭部分,也可能是中間某一個分話題。但無論是哪一種情況,都會圍繞某一個特定話題展開。

【看這里~】

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(編輯:bruce)

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